count


Category: algorithms 
Component type: function 
Prototype
Count is an overloaded name: there are two count functions.
template <class InputIterator, class EqualityComparable>
iterator_traits<InputIterator>::difference_type
count(InputIterator first, InputIterator last,
const EqualityComparable& value);
template <class InputIterator, class EqualityComparable, class Size>
void count(InputIterator first, InputIterator last,
const EqualityComparable& value,
Size& n);
Description
Count finds the number of elements in [first, last) that are
equal to value. More precisely, the first version of count
returns the number of iterators i in [first, last) such that
*i == value. The second version of count adds to n the number of
iterators i in [first, last) such that *i == value.
The second version of count was the one defined in the original
STL, and the first version is the one defined in the
draft C++ standard; the definition was changed because the
older interface was clumsy and errorprone. The older interface
required the use of a temporary variable, which had to be
initialized to 0 before the call to count.
Both interfaces are currently supported [1], for
reasons of backward compatibility, but eventually the older
version will be removed.
Definition
Defined in the standard header algorithm, and in the nonstandard
backwardcompatibility header algo.h.
Requirements on types
For the first version, which takes three arguments:

InputIterator is a model of Input Iterator.

EqualityComparable is a model of Equality Comparable.

InputIterator's value type is a model of Equality Comparable.

An object of InputIterator's value type can be compared for equality with
an object of type EqualityComparable.
For the second version, which takes four arguments:

InputIterator is a model of Input Iterator.

EqualityComparable is a model of Equality Comparable.

Size is an integral type that can hold values of
InputIterator's distance type.

InputIterator's value type is a model of Equality Comparable.

An object of InputIterator's value type can be compared for equality with
an object of type EqualityComparable.
Preconditions

[first, last) is a valid range.
For the second version:

[first, last) is a valid range.

n plus the number of elements equal to value does not exceed
the maximum value of type Size.
Complexity
Linear. Exactly last  first comparisons.
Example
int main() {
int A[] = { 2, 0, 4, 6, 0, 3, 1, 7 };
const int N = sizeof(A) / sizeof(int);
cout << "Number of zeros: "
<< count(A, A + N, 0)
<< endl;
}
Notes
[1]
The new count interface uses the iterator_traits class, which
relies on a C++ feature known as partial specialization. Many of
today's compilers don't implement the complete standard; in
particular, many compilers do not support partial specialization. If
your compiler does not support partial specialization, then you will
not be able to use the newer version of count, or any other STL
components that involve iterator_traits.
See also
count_if, find, find_if
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